Table 1

Physiologic and Echocardiographic Parameters

C57BL/6J + Vehicledb/db + Vehicledb/db + Empagliflozin
Blood metabolites, mM
 Fed group glucose9.0 ± 0.211.3 ± 1.77.6 ± 0.3
 Fed group ketones0.10 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.010.22 ± 0.03
 Fed group FFA0.38 ± 0.060.87 ± 0.111.00 ± 0.19
 Fasted group glucose7.2 ± 0.621.4 ± 1.811.8 ± 1.3
 Fasted group ketones0.59 ± 0.070.47 ± 0.141.20 ± 0.19
 Fasted group FFA0.51 ± 0.041.00 ± 0.090.94 ± 0.04
Echocardiography data
 Fractional shortening, %31.1 ± 1.038.8 ± 1.235.9 ± 1.3
 Ejection fraction, %59.4 ± 1.569.5 ± 1.565.7 ± 1.8
 MV E, mm/s586 ± 21616 ± 35507 ± 38
 MV A, mm/s482 ± 25498 ± 33423 ± 35
 MV E/E'25.6 ± 1.027.1 ± 2.226.3 ± 2.4
 IVS;d, mm0.95 ± 0.040.97 ± 0.020.92 ± 0.03
 IVS;s, mm1.31 ± 0.051.50 ± 0.041.42 ± 0.04
 LVID;d, mm3.77 ± 0.063.83 ± 0.083.81 ± 0.07
 LVID;s, mm2.65 ± 0.072.38 ± 0.082.47 ± 0.09
 LVPW;d, mm0.88 ± 0.050.91 ± 0.020.91 ± 0.03
 LVPW;s, mm1.29 ± 0.061.32 ± 0.021.29 ± 0.04

Values are mean ± SD. Mice in the fed group were treated for 4 weeks with empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. For the fasting measurements, an independent set of mice were given a single 10 mg/kg dose of empagliflozin or vehicle and then subjected to a 24-h fast. Blood metabolite levels are shown in the fed group for glucose (n = 16 per group), ketones (n = 14 to16 per group), and FFA (n = 8 to 15 per group), and in the fasted group (n = 8 to 10 per group). Fractional shortening and ejection fraction of the left ventricle (n = 14 to 19 per group) and mitral valve (MV) E, MV A, and MV E/E' (n = 14 to19 per group) are shown. Ventricular measurements, including interventricular septum at end diastole/systole (IVS;d, IVS;s), left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole/systole (LVID;d, LVID;s) and left ventricular posterior wall at end diastole/systole (LVPW;d, LVPW;s) are included. Data are presented as mean ± SEM and analyzed by One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD post hoc test.

ANOVA = analysis of variance; FFA = free fatty acids; IVS = interventricular septum; LSD = least significant difference; LVID = left ventricular internal diameter; LVPW = left ventricular posterior wall; MV = mitral valve.

  • p<0.05 was considered as significantly different compared to C57BL/6J + Vehicle.

  • p<0.05 was considered as significantly different compared to db/db + Vehicle.