CM-Specific Deletion of SMAD4 Causes Cardiac Dysfunction
CTL and SMAD4 KO mice underwent baseline transthoracic echocardiographic examination and then were subjected to a TAM treatment for 2 weeks. After a 4-week wash-out period, mice were then followed with serial echocardiography assessment at the time points shown. (A) Representative images of serial echocardiographic measurements. (B) Left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVID,d). ****p < 0.0001 versus MerCreMer (MCM) group, ***p = 0.0008 versus MCM group. (C) LVID in systole (LVID,s). ****p < 0.0001 versus MCM. (D) LV ejection fraction (LVEF). **p = 0.0035 versus MCM group (time = 4 weeks), **p = 0.0014 versus MCM group, #p = 0.0161 versus CTL group (time = 8 weeks). (E) LV fractional shortening (LVFS). *p = 0.0220 versus MCM group (time = 4 weeks), *p = 0.0184 versus MCM group, ##p = 0.0096 versus CTL (time = 8 weeks). BL = baseline; Wk = weeks; other abbreviations as in Figure 1.