Successful Hydrogel Delivery to the Pericardial Space Using the Hydrogel Delivery Device Visualized Directly and by Fluoroscopy
(A) The delivery device was successfully placed over the left anterior descending artery in a porcine cadaver. Sternum was removed to allow direct visualization. (B) Contrast-labeled hydrogel delivery by the device (arrow) was visualized in situ by fluoroscopy. (C) In a live animal, trypan blue–labeled gel was delivered with the device to the posterior wall and gelled within the temporary compartment created by the device, epicardium, and pericardium. Sixty minutes after device removal, the gel remained localized over delivery location.