Deployment and retraction of hydrogel delivery device within the pericardial space in live pigs
Viewing the heart in extreme lateral view, the hydrogel delivery device is placed into the pericardial space using minimally invasive micro-puncture technique. The sheath is positioned over the inferoposterior wall and the delivery device deployed. As the device leaves the sheath, it forms a circular fenced area for biomaterial gel delivery. The pericardium drapes over the device forming a natural roof, while the cardiac epicardium acts as a floor. Hemodynamic measurements were taken using pigtail catheter in left ventricle (arrow) and Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (arrowhead). After allowing sufficient time for hydrogel gelation, the delivery device fence is retracted into the sheath without disruption of gel architecture.