Author + information
- Gail A. Van Norman, MD∗ ()
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Gail A. Van Norman, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington, 2141 8th Avenue West, Seattle, Washington 98119.
Phase II clinical studies represent a critical point in determining drug costs, and phase II is a poor predictor of drug success: >30% of drugs entering phase II studies fail to progress, and >58% of drugs go on to fail in phase III. Adaptive clinical trial design has been proposed as a way to reduce the costs of phase II testing by providing earlier determination of futility and prediction of phase III success, reducing overall phase II and III trial sizes, and shortening overall drug development time. This review examines issues in phase II testing and adaptive trial design.
Dr. Van Norman has received financial support from the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.
The author attests she is in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations of the author’s institutions and Food and Drug Administration guidelines, including patient consent where appropriate. For more information, visit the JACC: Basic to Translational Science author instructions page.
- Received February 11, 2019.
- Accepted February 14, 2019.
- 2019 The Authors