Author + information
- Received July 4, 2017
- Revision received October 8, 2017
- Accepted October 11, 2017
- Published online April 30, 2018.
- Shafkat Anwar, MDa,∗ (, )
- Gautam K. Singh, MDa,
- Jacob Miller, MDb,
- Monica Sharma, MSa,
- Peter Manning, MDb,
- Joseph J. Billadello, MDc,
- Pirooz Eghtesady, MD, PhDb and
- Pamela K. Woodard, MDd
- aDivision of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- bDivision of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- cDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- dMallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Shafkat Anwar, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, One Children’s Place, Campus Box 8116–NWT, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.
Survival in congenital heart disease has steadily improved since 1938, when Dr. Robert Gross successfully ligated for the first time a patent ductus arteriosus in a 7-year-old child. To continue the gains made over the past 80 years, transformative changes with broad impact are needed in management of congenital heart disease. Three-dimensional printing is an emerging technology that is fundamentally affecting patient care, research, trainee education, and interactions among medical teams, patients, and caregivers. This paper first reviews key clinical cases where the technology has affected patient care. It then discusses 3-dimensional printing in trainee education. Thereafter, the role of this technology in communication with multidisciplinary teams, patients, and caregivers is described. Finally, the paper reviews translational technologies on the horizon that promise to take this nascent field even further.
Three-dimensional models were made through a collaborative partnership with 3D Systems Healthcare (Golden, Colorado). The authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
All authors attest they are in compliance with human studies committees and animal welfare regulations of the authors' institutions and Food and Drug Administration guidelines, including patient consent where appropriate. For more information, visit the JACC: Basic to Translational Science author instructions page.
- Received July 4, 2017.
- Revision received October 8, 2017.
- Accepted October 11, 2017.
- 2018 The Authors
- Central Illustration
- Scope of Congenital Heart Disease and the Need for Transformative Care
- 3D Printing Technology and Options for Cardiovascular Printing
- Applications of 3D Printing in CHD
- Accuracy and Quality Assurance in Cardiac 3D Printing
- 3D Printing for Trainee Education and Surgical Simulation
- 3D Printing to Facilitate Communication Within the Medical Team and for Counseling Patients and Families
- Advanced Applications and Future Directions